Toxic metal-contaminated wastewater is a major environmental issue that requires a practical and cost-effective technological solution. Heavy metal phytoremediation by constructed wetland is becoming more common around the world. Plants are used in phytoremediation to degrade, stabilize, and remove contaminants from soils, water, and waste. The key issues with managing heavy metal phytoremediation plants in an environmentally appropriate manner. The design of CWs for successful phytoremediation in heavy metals contaminated wastewater should not affect the local environment. By-product generation is another crucial part of phytoremediation’s success. Phyto-management has emerged as an alternative strategy in recent years. Phytoremediating plants ( C. indica and A. calamus) biomass has been successfully used in the manufacture of 70 fly-ash bricks. High rate of Cu (96 %), Zn (95 %), (Fe 93), and Cr (91 %) removal from Canna indica and Acorus calamus were found in the present study as compared to the Typha latifoliya, Myriophylhum aquaticum, Ludwigina palustris, Eichhornia crassipes, Schoenoplectus californicus, Cyperus papyrus, and Phragmites australis which indicates C. indica is the high potential for heavy metal removal and can be strongly used for industrial wastewater. In the way, the use of ornamental plants for phytoremediation of contaminated sewage wastewater would also change the landscape of the aquatic environment. This article summarises viable avenues in the method of using phytoremediating plant biomass for environmental protection.
The present study attempts to understand land use dynamics in an area subjected to opencast and underground coal mining for the last few decades in Kotma Coalmines of Anuppur district in Madhya Pradesh, India through geospatial techniques. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change detection analysis was performed digitally classifying Landsat 5 (2001) as well as Landsat 8 (2020) satellite data using maximum likelihood algorithm. Results revealed that area under Dense native vegetation decreased drastically (13.74 sq. km) with the gradual and consistent expansion in the activities of coal mines which showed the highest increase in area over time (15.84 sq. km). Bivariate regression analysis showed the positive empirical relationships between vegetation indices and soil physico-chemical parameters. Studies suggested soil and vegetation is degraded over the large mining areas consistently over a long time period. Despite the continuous reforestation activities on mined areas, the decline area under dense vegetation and sparse vegetation over the twenty-year time-scale indicates that the reclamation activities are still in its’ infancy. Land Degradation Vulnerability Index (LDVI) map was generated to understand the extent of decadal land degradation trends and it shows that 8.60 % of the area is highly vulnerable to degradation. The LDI inputs will help the planners to develop alternate strategies to tackle vulnerability zones for safe mining. Monthly estimation of various meteorological parameters was also recorded to generate heat plots for the period 2001-2020. The study concludes that monitoring and assessment of fragile ecosystems are indispensable for holistic environmental management.