The case report by Sicim et al. is the placement of extra-anatomical bypasses in bilateral common carotid arteries. The similar previous reports of the extra-anatomical bypass usually indicate unilateral bypass. Whether or not the Willis' circle is incomplete is difficult to judge during emergency surgery, and the authors' judgment seems to have been correct in the sense that it could maintain cerebral perfusion reliably and quickly. The direct perfusion and extraanatomical bypass of carotid artery is a reasonable strategy in patients with cerebral malperfusion.
The morphology variations of the so-called scimitar vein are many and varied. We present a synthesis of 92 published investigations of the overall scimitar syndrome. We reviewed the clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, surgical approaches, and outcomes. Diagnostic information was provided by clinical presentations, radiographic findings, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, computed-tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, angiocardiography, and ventilation/perfusion scans. These investigations served to elucidate the origin, course, and termination of the scimitar vein, the intracardiac anatomy, the presence of associated defects, and the patterns of any accompanying pulmonary lesions. In short, they defined the disease prior to surgical intervention. Of the patients described, up to four-fifths presented during infancy, with cardiac failure, increased pulmonary flow, and pulmonary hypertension. Associated cardiac and extracardiac defects, particularly hypoplasia of the right lung, are present in up to three-quarters of cases. Overall operative mortality has been cited between 4.8% and 5.9%. Mortality was highest in patients with preoperative pulmonary hypertension, and those undergoing surgery in infancy. Despite timely surgical intervention, post-repair obstruction of the scimitar vein, intra-atrial baffle obstruction, or stenosis of the inferior caval vein were reported in up to two-thirds of cases. The venous obstruction could not be related to any particular surgical technique. On long term follow-up, one sixth of patients reported persistent dyspnoea and recurrent respiratory infections. Any infants presenting with heart failure, right-sided heart, and hypoplastic right lung should be evaluated to exclude the syndrome. An increased appreciation of variables will contribute to improved surgical management.
WeChat and access to wireless communication may offer a continuum of care following medical and surgical intervention. This cardiac surgery research study evaluates the process of parental education and social support following pediatric cardiac surgery utilizing standard of care compared to telehealth.
The morphological variations when one, or both, of the atrial chambers is subdivided, are many and varied. We present a synthesis of 198 published investigations of this “family” of uncommon lesions. Almost three-quarters of patients with divided atrial chambers present during infancy with severe pulmonary hypertension and cardiac failure. Associated cardiac and extra-cardiac defects are present in between half and nine-tenths of cases. Acquired division of the left atrium has been reported after the Fontan operation, orthotopic cardiac transplantation, and complicated aortic valvar infective endocarditis. Surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass remains the definitive treatment. Balloon dilation may be considered in anatomically compatible variants in the setting of cardiac failure and pregnancy as a bridge to definitive treatment. Overall, mortality has been cited between nil to 29%. Presentation during infancy, associated congenital anomalies, pulmonary hypertension, and surgery in the previous era, have been the reported causes of death. The operative survivors have long-term favourable outcomes, with near normal cardiac dimensions and low risk of recurrence. While asymptomatic patients with division of the right atrium do not need treatment, surgical resection of the dividing partition under cardiopulmonary bypass is recommended in symptomatic patients with complex anatomy, the spinnaker malformation, or associated cardiac anomalies. Balloon dilation may be considered in uncomplicated patients with less obstructive lesions. Hybrid intervention and endoscopic robotic correction also have been performed. We submit that an increased appreciation of the anatomic background to division of the atrial chambers will contribute to improved surgical management.
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has quickly become the mainstay of treatment for acute aortic dissection, in particular cases of acute complicated Stanford Type B dissection (co-TBAD). Necessarily, TEVAR carries with it the risk of postoperative complications, including stroke and renal failure. As a result, the management of patients with uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (un-TBAD), which is generally accepted as being less severe, are safely managed via optimal medical therapy (OMT) alone. However, despite OMT, patients with un-TBAD are at substantial risk of severe disease progression requiring delayed intervention. The cost-benefit ratio associated with TEVAR for un-TBAD is therefore of key interest. Howard and colleagues produced a fascinating systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the clinical outcomes of TEVAR for complicated and uncomplicated TBAD. Their data suggests that there is no significant difference in in-hospital mortality or 5-year survival between TEVAR for un-TBAD and co-TBAD, although the 30-day mortality rate appeared to be higher in the co-TBAD cohort. Patients with co-TBAD appeared to also be at a higher risk of postoperative stroke and TEVAR endoleak, while un-TBAD patients were at a higher risk of postoperative renal failure. Further prospective research into these relationships are recommended to fully elucidate the comparative efficacies of TEVAR for un-TBAD and co-TBAD.
Herein, we present a neonatal case of coarctation of the aorta, with aortic arch thrombus confirmed by echocardiography. We performed thrombus removal and aortic arch repair emergently. This critical condition necessitates quick preoperative evaluation with echocardiography. Moreover, postoperative evaluation using computed tomography is reasonable to assess an aortic arch configuration, and exclude the remnant thrombus.
Aorto-Pulmonary Mismatch (APM) in Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) may be accountable for dilatation of neoaortic root and regurgitation of neoaortic valve as late complications of ASO. The manuscript from Arcieri et al. highlights an important aspect about ASO technique: should we approach APM during ASO and what would be the best strategy to do so? Techniques to approach APM at the time of ASO have been published sporadically and are very rarely employed by surgeons. Reconstruction of the neoaorta is generally achieved by trimming of the suture line between pulmonary root (neoaortic root) and ascending aorta resulting in an abnormal dilated and bulky neoaortic root already at the time of ASO. Reduction of the pulmonary root dimension by ressection of a fragment of the pulmonary artery wall possibly results in a more homogenous neoaorta with consequent better hemodynamics. We believe that approaching APM during ASO will have a compelling positive impact in the late survival of the patients with complex TGA.
It is well known that the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) should be the first conduit of choice. Similarly, especially in patients younger than 70 years, other conduits should be search among arterial grafts such as right internal mammary artery (RIMA) or radial artery (RA). If the RA can be harvested in the meanwhile of LIMA harvesting without time consuming, it is well established that former one has to be grafted only on presence of a good run-off. One of the main criticisms moved to the use of RIMA are linked to technical difficulties in its harvesting it. Edgar Aranda-Michel and coworkers tried to answer to the age-old question is “RIMA has to be used in situ or free-graft?” In a retrospective study on 667 patients (442 had free RIMA and 245 had free RIMA) that were also matched through propensity analysis (202 patients per group), they did not find any differences between the two groups in the major outcomes, including heart failure specific readmissions. This finding is consistent with the literature, hence the take-home message is whatever happens, two mammary is better than one.
Telemedicine, telehealth and artificial intelligence in healthcare are becoming commonly utilized in various medical specialties. The article authored by Dr. Aminah Sallam and colleagues in the Journal provides data in support of the cardiac surgical patients, and the caring cardiac surgeons willingness to adopt telemedicine as a method of connectivity between patient and surgeon.
Intimal sarcomas simultaneously involving the right atrium and the inferior vena cava are rare. We report an advanced cardiac intimal sarcoma in the right atrium of a 19-year-old man that was complicated by tumor-related inferior vena cava thrombosis. We initially performed partial tumor resection and vena cava thrombectomy to resolve the circulatory obstruction, because complete resection was difficult due to the invading malignancy and an unclear margin. The patient received adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy along with anticoagulant therapy. After 3 months, the border of the residual sarcoma was clear, and the patient underwent a secondary complete sarcoma excision (including that of the right atrium) and a suprahepatic vena cava reconstruction. At the 2-year follow-up, there was no tumor recurrence. We conclude that aggressive treatment and a staged complete resection can lead to improved outcomes for advanced cardiac intimal sarcoma with poor prognosis.
Abstract Systemic infections and chronic graft rejection represent common causes of mortality and morbidity in heart transplant patients. In severe cases, cardiogenic shock (CS) may occur and require hemodynamic stabilization with temporary mechanical circulatory support (tempMCS).1 Under these devastating circumstances, treatment of sequelae of left ventricular dysfunction, such as secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is challenging, especially when surgical repair is deemed futile. In non-transplant patients, interventional mitral valve repair strategies such as the MitraClip system (Abbott Cardiovascular, Plymouth, MN, USA) have been used to successfully treat secondary MR and allow for weaning from tempMCS.2 We report about the first patient in whom profound cardiogenic shock after heart transplantation was stabilized with tempMCS followed by interventional elimination of secondary MR.
Surgical implantation of a complete or incomplete ring to reduce the valve annulus and improve leaflet coaptation is the mainstay of mitral valve surgery. The Cardioband® system (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) was designed to address the pathophysiological mechanism of annular dilatation through a catheter-based approach. We present the histopathological workup of a Cardioband® device, which had been implanted 21 months earlier in a 34-year-old male with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Device examination demonstrate a well-positioned and securely anchored device. The described tissue reactions may have an impact on choice of device and timing in case of re-do surgery.
In this letter, we commented on several issues of the recent study entitled “Hypothermic circulatory arrest time affects neurological outcomes of frozen elephant trunk for acute type A aortic dissection: A systematic review and meta‐analysis” by Dr. Mousavizadeh et al. We hope to improve the clarity of this research and call attention to the methodological quality of performing a meta-analysis.