Take the bull by its horn: ‘Prophylactic aortic intervention’ in uncomplicated type B aortic dissectionRunning title: Prophylactic intervention in uncomplicated TBADDr. A. Mohammed Idhrees MCh, FIASORCID ID : 0000-0001-5981-9705Consultant,Institute of Cardiac and Aortic Disorders (ICAD),SRM Institutes for Medical Science (SIMS Hospital), Chennai.
The Recurring Theme of Gender Difference in Cardiac Surgical OutcomesJohn S. Ikonomidis MD, PhDDivision of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel HillWord Count: 1144References: 13Address correspondence to:John S. Ikonomidis MD, PhDProfessor and Chief,Division of Cardiothoracic SurgeryUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill3034 Burnett Womack Building160 Dental Circle,Chapel Hill, NC27599e-mail: email@example.comTel: (919) 966-3381In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery,1Newell and colleagues examined contemporary national outcomes following surgical resection of benign primary atrial and ventricular tumors. The 2016-2018 Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried for all patients > 18 years of age with a primary diagnosis of benign neoplasm of the heart who underwent resection of the atria, ventricles, or atrial/ventricular septum. A weighted total of 2,557 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 61 years, 67.9% were female, and patients had relatively low comorbidity burdens. The authors found that while there was no difference in 30-day mortality (2.1% vs 1.3%, p=0.550), 30-day readmission (7.0% vs 9.1%, p=0.222), or 30-day composite morbidity (56.8% vs 53.8%, p=0.369) between females and males respectively, on multivariable analysis, female sex was independently associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (OR 2.65, p=0.028).Overall, this was a well study which documents a large contemporary cohort of benign cardiac tumor resections. However, perhaps the most interesting feature of this study is the finding of sex as an independent predictor of 30 day mortality after propensity matching. Cardiac surgery suffers from a gender gap in terms of its outcomes. It has been well established that for many procedures such coronary bypass surgery (CABG), aortic valve replacement, mitral valve surgery, and aortic surgery.2 For CABG, women referred for surgery are typically older than men, have a higher comorbidity (hypertension, renal failure, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease) profile, and more often present in urgent or emergent status for surgery.3 Large, risk-adjusted, propensity matched studies have documented increased mortality in women as compared with men.4-7 This difference also extends into the interventional cardiology realm, where mortality and complication rates have been shown to be higher in women following percutaneous interventions for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.8For aortic valve replacement, a Nationwide Inpatient Sample study of 166809 patients with aortic stenosis from 2003 to 2014 found that women experience higher inpatient mortality (5.6% versus 4%, P<0.001) which persisted after propensity matching (3.3% versus 2.9%, P<0.001).9 For mitral valve surgery, a randomized controlled trial of patients with severe ischemic mitral insufficiency undergoing repair versus replacement found that women had higher mortality than men (27.1% versus 17.4%, p<0.03).10 For aortic surgery, female gender was associated with a higher mortality after both aortic dissection and aortic arch repair.11,12 Reduction in surgical stress through application of minimally invasive approaches still resulted in female sex being a risk factor for higher in-hospital mortality.13 The findings of the present study add further support to the above observations, with the potential addition that, in contrast to the other disease processes described, the majority of patients presenting for surgical removal of benign cardiac tumors were likely free of either symptoms or cardiac sequelae due to the disease, but nevertheless still the gender disparity in mortality persisted.While it is obvious that the above disease processes and their related surgical remedies are quite disparate, the association with increased mortality seen in females seems to be constant. Why is this? A considerable amount has been written regarding sex bias in referral patterns for surgery and even decreased functional reserve and health profiles of women when they are referred for surgical intervention compared with men.2 With regard to these referral patterns, published guidelines directing practitioners regarding indications for surgery are, in general, based upon studies in which the majority of patients were male. Interestingly, in the present study, females made up over two thirds of the patient population.1 While this suggests that females carry a disproportionately more benign cardiac tumors amenable to surgery, the post-surgical mortality disparity remained.The exact reasons for the above disparity remain unelucidated and further work is required to eliminate the gender gap in cardiac surgical outcomes. There is considerable focus on the removal of sex bias in animal and human research, as well as the development of disease treatment guidelines that consider gender in the algorithms. Hopefully and these and other sex-balanced approaches will reveal new insights that will allow us to bring equipoise to gender-stratified cardiac surgical outcomes.
BACKGROUND Postoperative pain after cardiac surgery is a very important issue and affects recovery, risk of postoperative complications and quality of life. The pain management has been traditionally based on intravenous opioids with growing evidence suggesting the use of opioid-free and opioid-sparing techniques to reduce its adverse effects. CASE PRESENTATION We report the case of a 75-years-old frail patient underwent awake mediastinal revision with subxiphoid access due to deep sternal wound infection using a Pectoralis-Intercostal Rectus Sheath (PIRS) plane block. During the procedure the patient never reported pain receiving acetaminophen 1 g every 8 hours for postoperative pain management without others pain relievers. CONCLUSION Ultrasound guided PIRS block could be an effective and safe analgesic technique to manage sternal and subxiphoid drainage pain in patients undergoing cardiac surgery via subxiphoid approach.
Frozen Elephant Trunk (FET) has revolutionized management of aortic arch and proximal descending aorta pathologies. Despite significant advancement in FET prosthesis design in recent years, adverse outcomes related with neurologic and visceral ischemic events remained unsolved. To address this issue, several publications evaluated protection strategies to reduce body lower ischemic time. In the present commentary we put the technique promoted as “Release and Perfuse Technique” on scale that is for achievement of less lower body circulatory arrest time.
In this article, the author provides synopses of the factors that have finally propelled healthcare education and practice to join, at times reluctantly, the overarching digital transformative process that has been swept other industries over the last few decades. The key contributors and driving forces that have energized the entry of healthcare education and practices are mentioned. The roles of major universities, large technology companies and the expanding roles of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are described. The projected future developments are predicted to continue to be substantial, sweeping and forcing changes that are unprecedented. Thus, academicians and practitioners should be alerted to what the rapidly changing landscape is likely to become and accordingly take steps to manage and preserve their roles or risk be left behind or worse be forced out.
Title Page:Title: Letter to the Editor: Long-term outcomes of elderly patients receiving continuous flow left ventricular supportArticle Type: Letter to the EditorCorrespondence: 1. Saad Ahmed qureshiContact No: +92-3360135206. Email: Saadqureshi1099@gmail.comInstitute: Ziauddin medical college KarachiAddress: NHS phase 4 tower 5b flat 5/7ORCID: 0000-0003-0857-3818Co-Authors: 2. Hamid ullah khanContact No: +92-3040215080. Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgInstitute: Ziauddin University karachiAddress: Plot no AS 04 sector 32-D Nasir colony Korangi no 01ORCID: 0000-0002-0938-6080Co-Authors: 3. Umer sami KhanContact No: +92-304044743. Email: Umersamikhan@gmail.comInstitute: Ziauddin University karachiAddress: B4, Block B, Gulshan-e-jamal, Rashid minhas Road, KarachiORCID: 0000-0003-0849-7915Word Count: 320
This letter is in response to the case report by Kuzmin et al. entitled “Left atrial appendage occlusion device causing coronary obstruction: A word of caution” , published in November 2020 issue of Journal of Cardiac Surgery. The report describes a circumflex lesion occurring following mitral valve (MV) repair, tricuspid valve repair, and left atrial appendage closure (LAAO) using AtriClip device. The authors concluded that LAAO is a safe procedure, but in the setting of a concomitant MV surgery LAAO may be a contributor to the reported event. Circumflex coronary artery occlusion or impingement during MV repair is well described in the literature. On the reported two-dimensional cine, the position of the stenosis is typical of mitral repair induced injury. A ring suture can gather and compress tissue adjacent to the coronary creating stenosis without a discrete ligation. It is also true that vigorous traction on the LAA without due attention to distortion of the adjacent circumflex might be capable of creating compression or accordioning of the vessel. To mitigate this, the clip should be placed at the true base of the appendage. A residual pouch carries as much or more risk as not attempting to close the appendage at all. The authors’ recommendation to place the clip more distally will inevitably lead to incomplete closures. In conclusion, the reported event was more likely due to a mitral stitch, the path of which is not directly visualized after it breaches the endocardium.
TITLE PAGE Title: Letter to the Editor: Minimally invasive aortic valve repair using geometric ring annuloplastyArticle type: Letter to the editorCorrespondence : 1. Bilawal NadeemContact: +92-3137562580 Email: email@example.comInstitute: King Edward Medical University, LahoreAddress: Mianwal Ranjha Dera Allah Wadhaya Tehsil and District Mandi Bahauddin, 50400Words count: 418Conflict of interest: noneDisclosure: noneFunding: none
Background: There is emerging evidence to support pre-emptive thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) intervention for uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (unTBAD). Pre-emptive intervention would be particularly beneficial in patients that have a higher baseline risk of progressing to complicated TBAD (coTBAD). There remains debate on the optimal clinical, laboratory, morphological and radiological parameters which would identify the highest-risk patients that would benefit most from pre-emptive TEVAR. Aim: This review summarises evidence on the clinical, laboratory, and morphological parameters that increase the risk profiles of unTBAD patients. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was carried out on multiple electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid and Scopus in order to collate all research evidence on the the clinical, laboratory, and morphological parameters that increase the risk profiles of unTBAD patients Results: At present, there are no clear clinical guidelines using risk-stratification to inform the selection of unTBAD patients for TEVAR. However, there are noticeable literature trends that can assist with the identification of the most at-risk unTBAD patients. Patients are at particular risk when they have refractory pain and/or hypertension, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), larger aortic diameter and larger entry tears. These risks should be considered alongside factors that increase the procedural risk of TEVAR to create a well-balanced approach. Advances in biomarkers and imaging are likely to identify more pertinent parameters in future to optimise the development of balanced, risk-stratified treatment protocols. Conclusion: There are a variety of risk profiling parameters that can be used to identify the high-risk unTBAD patient, with novel biomarkers and imaging parameter emerging. Longer-term evidence verifying these parameters would be ideal. Further randomized controlled trials and multicentre registry analyses are also warranted to guide risk-stratified selection protocols.