The manifestations of COVID-19 as outlined by echocardiography, lung ultrasound (LUS) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging are yet to be fully described. We conducted a systematic review of the current literature and included studies that described cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 using echocardiography, LUS and CMR. We queried PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for relevant articles. Original studies and case series were included. This review describes the most common abnormalities encountered on echocardiography, LUS and CMR in patients infected with COVID-19.
The diagnosis of acute myocarditis (AM) remains challenging because of its diverse clinical manifestations. Thus, a wide range of diagnostic tests may be warranted. Although cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the preferred imaging technique, it may not be applicable in the acute AM phase. Our case report highlights the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of echocardiographic examination. In the first 2-dimensional echocardiography, the focal echobright was presented. A reduced value of global longitudinal strain, and regional disturbances of segmental myocardial strain, both longitudinal and circumferential, in the epicardial layer, were detected with a good correlation with CMR results.
57-years old man presented with exertional dyspnea. An early systolic murmur was heard over the aortic areas 2D and 3D Echocardiography revealed unicuspid , unicommissural aortic valve (UAV) with a characteristic “teardrop” lateral orifice (Figure A) and moderate valve stenosis (3D planimetered aortic valve area (AVA) is 1.1cm2) (Figure B) Continuous wave Doppler across aortic valve (AV) showed high peak and mean systolic gradients of 85 and 60mmHg respectively.(Figure C). 2D /3D Transesophageal Echocardiography (TOE) revealed a subaortic ridge attached to the posterior annulus (Arrow) (Figure D) Further En-face viewing of the aortic valve from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) perspective showed a shelf-like ridge extending from the commissure to the cusp (Arrow) (Figure E) Zoomed mode of the aortic- LVOT junction confirmed the presence of the subaortic ridge seen attached to the posterior aortic annulus near the commissural opening (Figure F) The patient was referred for surgical consultation .. Unicupid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare congenital anomaly that has.2 subtypes ; unicomissural and acommissural subtypes. Both can present with variable degrees of the aortic stenosis (AS) and/or aortic valve regurgitation (AR).UAV has more early, accelerated and severe valvular degeneration in addition to smaller orifice in comparison with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve. Echocardiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and evaluation of the AV morphology and function and the associated disorders such as ventricular septal defect , aortopathy and subaortic obstruction.. Surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) and repair of the associated anomalies are the most common treatment modality .
Objectives: Myocardial injury during active coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection is well described however, its persistence during recovery is unclear. We assessed left ventricle (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in COVID-19 recovered patients and studied its correlation with various parameters.Methods: A total of 134 subjects within 30-45 days post recovery from COVID-19 infection and normal LV ejection fraction were enrolled. Routine blood investigations, inflammatory markers (on admission) and comprehensive echocardiography including STE were done for all. Results: Of the 134 subjects, 121 (90.3%) were symptomatic during COVID-19 illness and were categorized as mild: 61 (45.5%), moderate: 50 (37.3%) and severe: 10 (7.5%) COVID-19 illness. Asymptomatic COVID-19 infection was reported in 13 (9.7%) patients. Subclinical LV and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction were seen in 40 (29.9%) and 14 (10.5%) patients respectively. Impaired LVGLS was reported in 1 (7.7%), 8 (13.1%), 22 (44%) and 9 (90%) subjects with asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe disease respectively. LVGLS was significantly lower in patients recovered from severe illness (mild: -21 ± 3.4%; moderate: -18.1 ± 6.9%; severe: -15.5 ± 3.1%; P < 0.0001). Subjects with reduced LVGLS had significantly higher interleukin-6 (P < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (P = 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.009) and serum ferritin (P = 0.03) levels during index admission. Conclusions: Subclinical LV dysfunction was seen in nearly a third of recovered COVID-19 patients while 10.5% had RV dysfunction. Our study suggests a need for closer follow-up among COVID-19 recovered subjects to elucidate long-term cardiovascular outcomes.
Introduction Pregnancy is a process that causes several physiological changes including all systems as well as cardiovascular system. Ventricular hypertrophy and dilation of cardiac chambers are seen as a result of these changes. Although there are studies about pregnancy-related changes in echocardiographic examination; there is no data about the long-term effects of parity on these alterations. Therefore, we have evaluated the long-term effect of pregnancy on right ventricular (RV) dilation and RV hypertrophy and their relation to the parity number. Methods This prospective study included a total of 600 women (200 consecutive women who had no parity, 200 women who had a parity number of 1 to 4 and 200 women who had a parity number of more than 4). Right chambers’ measurements were compared between the groups. Results In echocardiographic analysis, RV and right atrial dimensions and areas and RV wall thickness were higher in parous women. On the other hand, RV systolic function parameters were significantly lower in parous women. These significant changes showed a gradual increase or decrease by increasing parity number. There were also independent relationship between the number of parity and RV hypertrophy even after adjustment for several confounders. Conclusion Pregnancy-related physiological changes mostly resolve after delivery. This study about long-term effects of pregnancy on RV has demonstrated that there is a significant relation between the number of parity and either RV dilation or RV hypertrophy. Each parity had also additive effect on these changes.
Abnormal pulmonary venous flow patterns on fetal echocardiography and a nutmeg lung pattern on fetal magnetic resonance imaging are seen in patients with pulmonary venous stenosis. The association between these findings and the degree of pulmonary venous stenosis remains unknown. We report an extremely rare case of a fetus diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome complicated by an absent atrial septum and supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with left pulmonary venous congestion. This case suggests that compared to non-pulsatile continuous pulmonary venous flow, the nutmeg lung pattern can only be observed with severe pulmonary congestion and advanced pulmonary lymphangiectasia.
Background Timing of aortic valve intervention is dependent on the accuracy and reproducibility of echocardiographic (ECHO) parameters. We aimed to assess haemodynamic subsets of aortic stenosis (AS), their change over time, and variability of ECHO parameters. Method This retrospective, longitudinal study compared sequential ECHO over 15 months to identify concordant or discordant aortic valve area (AVA) and mean pressure gradient (MPG). Results We included 143 patients with a mean age of 76.0 years. The median length of time between studies was 112 days (IQR 38-208). Initially participants were classified as 10 (7.0%) mild, 49 (34.3%) moderate and 84 (58.7%) severe AS. In 80 (55.9%) AVA and MPG were concordant; stroke volume index (SVi) was <35ml/m2 in 53 (74.6%). AS severity was downgraded in 33 (23.1%) patients. MPG was most consistent and AVA was the least consistent between successive investigations (intraclass correlation coefficients R=0.86 and R=0.76, respectively). Even small variations in left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) measurement of 1 standard deviation reclassified up to 67% of participants from severe to non-severe. Conclusion Almost half of patients with AS have valve area/gradient discordance. Variations in LVOT diameter measurement commensurate with clinical practice reclassified AS severity in up to 2/3 of cases. Change in AS severity should only be accepted following careful scrutiny of all available ECHO data.
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are associated with high mortality rates and require prompt diagnosis with subsequent intervention. CT scan is considered the gold-standard for diagnosis, however, in the acute setting ultrasound may be a reasonable diagnostic test for certain patients. We report a case that demonstrates the utility of bedside ultrasound of rAAA for a patient in extremis. Also, we provide a brief review of literature for the diagnosis of rAAA with ultrasound.
In case of valvular infective endocarditis, the infection is mainly localized on the flow side of the valves or at damaged valvular endothelium. We describe a rare case of an aortic valvular inefctive endocarditis with an aortic-valve vegetation situated on the aortic side of the valve. We believe this is the first description of this unusual localization of vegetations in a native aortic valve.
Aims. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a predictor of adverse outcomes among patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) however, differences in RV parameters in HFrEF patients with ischemic (ICM) and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) are not well understood. We investigated echocardiographic characteristics, including RV strain, in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and compared patients with ICM and NICM etiology. Methods. Consecutive patients who presented with ADHF and NYHA class III-IV were prospectively enrolled if they had LVEF <40% and history of ICM or NICM. All patients underwent clinical exam, laboratory evaluation and 2-D echocardiographic assessment of the left ventricular (LV) and RV function, LV and RV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS, RVGLS), and RV free wall strain (RVfwLS). Results. Of 84 patients, 44 had ICM and 40 NICM. The groups had similar blood pressure, NT-proBNP, and echocardiographic parameters of LV function including LVGLS. Absolute RVGLS values were lower than RVfwLS values in both groups. Patients with NICM had significantly lower RVfwLS, but not RVGLS, compared to patients with ICM (-13% to -17%, P=0.006). Similar differences in RVfwLS were seen in patients in NYHA class III (NICM vs ICM: -13% and -17%, respectively, 95% CI: -8.5 to -0.5) and NYHA class IV (NICM vs ICM: -13.8% and -17%, respectively, 95% CI: -6.4 to -0.59). Conclusion. Among patients hospitalized with ADHF, patients with nonischemic etiology compared with the patients with ICM, have worse RV dysfunction measured by RVfwLS, despite similar extent of LV impairment and the same functional limitation class.
Introduction: Cardiac point-of-care ultrasound (c-POCUS) is an increasingly implemented diagnostic tool with the potential to guide clinical management. We sought to characterize and analyze the existing c-POCUS literature with a focus on the temporal trends and differences across specialties. Methods: A literature search for c-POCUS and related terms was conducted using Ovid (MEDLINE and Embase) and Web of Science databases through 2020. Eligible publications were classified by publication type and topic, author specialty, geographical region of senior author, and journal specialty. Results: The initial search produced 1761 potential publications. A strict definition of c-POCUS yielded a final total of 574 cardiac POCUS manuscripts. A yearly increase in c-POCUS publications was observed. Nearly half of publications were original research (48.8%) followed by case report or series (22.8%). Most publications had an emergency medicine senior author (37.5%), followed by cardiology (20.2%), anesthesiology (12.2%), and critical care (12.2%). The proportion authored by emergency medicine and cardiologists has decreased over time while those by anesthesiology and critical care has generally increased, particularly over the last decade. First authorship demonstrated a similar trend. Articles were published at similar numbers in emergency medicine journals (23.0%) and cardiology journals (19.9%). Conclusion: The annual number of c-POCUS publications has steadily increased over time reflecting the increased recognition and utilization of c-POCUS. This study can help inform clinicians of the current state of c-POCUS and augment the discussion surrounding barriers to continued adoption across all specialties.
Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare.Most primary tumors are benign,and malignant tumors comprise about 15%1.Angiosarcoma is the most common type of primary cardiac malignant tumors.Compared with the left atrium or ventricle,the tumor prefer to occur in the right atrium or ventricle,especially the right atrium.In this case report,we present the case of a 32-year-old female with cardiac angiosarcoma primary to the right atrial appendage(RAA).
We describe an adult patient who presented with purulent pericarditis in whom two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a marked decrease in the area of the right ventricular wall together with the overlying fibrin following intrapericardial administration of a fibrinolytic agent. Documentation of this decrease by measurements performed and illustrated on two-dimensional images have not been reported previously in an adult patient with purulent pericarditis, to the best of our knowledge.
Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly and constitues of less than 0.1% of all congenital cardiac defects (1). ALVT is described as an abnormal connection between the ascending aorta and the left ventricul which originates commonly above the right sinus of valsalva. Most patients are diagnosed with an ALVT during early infancy (2). Although transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is more effective in diagnosis of ALVT, misdiagnosis rate was 17.1% (3). Sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SVA) is frequently confused with ALVT (3). We report a term female newborn with SVA in echocardiographic examination but in surgery she was diagnosed with ALVT.
We present a case of a 75-year-old woman with typical myocardial infarction, however coronary angiogram was negative. Echocardiography identified the rare cause of chest pain, as a mobile mass of aortic valve was found to obstruct the coronary ostium. histopathology revealed a papillary fibroelastoma (PFE). Chest pain was relieved after surgical resection of the mass.
Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of mitral valve stenosis. Left atrial appendage thrombus is associated with mitral stenosis, but in rare cases the thrombus can extend to the left atrial cavity. We present a case of a severe rheumatic mitral stenosis and associated large left atrial thrombus, with embolic sequelae.
Right atrial appendage aneurysms (RAAAs) are extremely rare in cardiac anomaly. According to the literature, no more than 25 cases have been reported so far, among which only 3 cases were children. Here, we reported an infant with a giant RAAA and severe symptoms. The RAAA was diagnosed by echocardiography and surgically resected under cardiopulmonary bypass. The role of transesophageal echocardiography was very important during the aneurysm resection surgery, which helped surgeons to plan surgical procedures during the surgery and evaluate the surgical effect postoperatively.