Objective: To evaluate early changes in left ventricular systolic function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI). Methods: Thirty SLE patients and 30 healthy people (control group) were selected, the patients were further divided into subgroups according to their Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment version of the SLE Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) score: SELENA-SLEDAI ≤ 12 (mild-to-moderate group), SELENA-SLEDAI > 12 (severe group). Blood samples were obtained from patients and laboratory investigations were performed. All participants were examined using 3D-STI, the 3D conventional and strain parameters were obtained. The above parameters were compared in the three studied groups. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were prepared for above parameters and analyzed to identify correlations among LVEF, GLS, GCS, LVtw, Tor, MCI and hs-TropT. Results: Compared with the control group, the absolute values of LVEDV, LVEF, GLS, GCS, LVtw, Tor and MCI decreased, LV EDmass, LV ESmass and PSD increased in the mild-to-moderate and the severe groups (P2 < 0.05, P3 < 0.05). There was statistically significant difference in terms of strain parameters between the mild-to-moderate group and the severe group (P1 < 0.05). The highest area under the ROC for MCI was 0.909, the highest sensitivity for MCI was 90.00%, and the highest specificity for Tor was 86.67%. Correlation analysis showed that there was a good correlation between the MCI and hs-TropT (r = − 0.677). Conclusion: 3D-STI technology may help detect early changes in left ventricular systolic function in patients with SLE
The manifestations of COVID-19 as outlined by echocardiography, lung ultrasound (LUS) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging are yet to be fully described. We conducted a systematic review of the current literature and included studies that described cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 using echocardiography, LUS and CMR. We queried PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for relevant articles. Original studies and case series were included. This review describes the most common abnormalities encountered on echocardiography, LUS and CMR in patients infected with COVID-19.
Purpose: Degenerative mitral stenosis (DMS) is an increasingly recognized cause of mitral stenosis. The goal of this study was to compare echocardiographic differences between DMS and rheumatic mitral stenosis (RMS), identify echocardiographic variables reflective of DMS severity, and propose a dimensionless mitral stenosis index (DMSI) for assessment of DMS severity. Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study. We included patients with at least mild MS and a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) ≥ 4 mmHg. Mitral valve area by the continuity equation (MVACEQ) was used as an independent reference. The DMSI was calculated as follows: DMSI = VTILVOT / VTIMV. All-cause mortality data were collected retrospectively. Results: A total of 64 patients with DMS and 24 patients with RMS were identified. MVACEQ was larger in patients with DMS (1.43 0.4 cm2) than RMS (0.9 0.3 cm2) by ~0.5 cm2 (p = <0.001) and mean TMPG was lower in the DMS group (6.0 2 vs. 7.93 mmHg, p=0.003). A DMSI of 0.50 and ≤ 0.351 were associated with MVACEQ ≤ 1.5 and MVACEQ ≤ 1.0 cm2 (p<0.001), respectively. With the progression of DMS from severe to very severe, there was a significant drop in DMSI. There was a non-significant trend towards worse survival in patients with MVACEQ ≤ 1.0 cm2 and DMSI ≤ 0.35, suggesting severe stenosis severity. Conclusion: Our results show that TMPG correlates poorly with MVA in patients with DMS. Proposed DMSI may serve as a simple echocardiographic indicator of hemodynamically significant DMS.
Echocardiography is commonly utilized in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for assessment of cardiac function, volume status, and the potential development of acute cor pulmonale. In severe ARDS, prone positioning is frequently used, which imposes technical challenges during transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) image acquisition. Moreover, prone positioning can affect cardiopulmonary function in ways that are reflected on the echocardiographic findings in this position. Historically, a transesophageal approach was recommended when a patient is prone, with few studies reporting utility of TTE in this setting. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap. This review explores recent literature addressing the use of TTE in prone patients with ARDS, with a special focus on the cardiopulmonary effects of proning and potential solutions to the technical difficulties that arise in this position.
Congenital left atrial appendage aneurysm is an extremely rare anomaly. It is seen at any time ranging from fetal to ninth decade of life. Patients with left atrial appendage aneurysm may be asymptomatic, or present with dyspnea, arrhythmias, thromboembolic phenomenon. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis at 26 weeks of gestation , postnatal management and outcome of left atrial appendage aneurysm.
Background This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the utility of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) as a tool to evaluate for cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) early in its course. Electrocardiography and echocardiography have limited sensitivity in this role, while advanced imaging modalities such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose–Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) are limited by cost and availability. Methods We compiled English language articles that reported left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) or global circumferential strain (GCS) in patients with confirmed extra-cardiac sarcoidosis versus healthy controls. Studies that exclusively included patients with probable or definite CS were excluded. Continuous data were pooled as a standard mean difference (SMD) between the sarcoidosis group and controls. A random effect model was adopted in all analyses. Heterogeneity was assessed using Q and I2 statistics. Results Nine studies with 967 patients were included in our analysis. LVGLS was significantly lower in the extra-cardiac sarcoidosis group as compared to controls, SMD -3.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): -5.32, -2.64, p< 0.001, also was significantly lower in patients who suffered Major Cardiac Events(MCE), -3.89, 95% CI -6.14, -1.64, p< 0.001 . GCS was significantly lower in the extra-cardiac sarcoidosis group as compared to controls, SMD: -3.33, 95% CI -4.71, -1.95, p< 0.001 Conclusion LVGLS and GCS were significantly lower in extra-cardiac sarcoidosis patients despite not exhibiting any cardiac symptoms. LVGLS correlates with MCEs in CS. Further studies are required to investigate the role of STE in the early screening of CS.
We report a case of a 17-year-old healthy male presenting with multisystem hyperinflammatory shock temporally associated with COVID-19. Cardiac involvement was suspected based on evidence of significant cardiac injury (elevated cardiac biomarkers, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed demonstrating global biventricular systolic dysfunction, as well as a small area of T2 hyperintensity and mid wall late gadolinium enhancement. This case discusses the varied cardiac involvement in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection and highlights that cardiac injury is not just limited to hyperinflammatory syndrome related global dysfunction but a more focal myocarditis can also be seen.
B-LINES IN COVID-19: “UNSPECIFICITY” IS NOT “MEANINGLESS”Luigi Vetrugno1,2 MD, Prof, Tiziana Bove1,2 MD, Prof, Daniele Orso1 MD, Federico Barbariol2 MD, Flavio Bassi2 MD, Enrico Boero3 MD, Giovanni Ferrari4 MD, Robert Kong5MD, FRCA, EDIC,1Department of Medicine, University of Udine, ItalyAnesthesia and Intensive Care ClinicVia Colugna n° 50, 33100 Udine, Italy2University-Hospital of Udine, ItalyDepartment of Anesthesia and Intensive CareP.le S. Maria della. Misericordia n° 15, 33100 Udine, Italy3Anesthesia and Intensive Care, San Giovanni Bosco Hospital, Torino, Italy4SC Pneumologia ad Indirizzo Semi Intensivo, Azienda Ospedaliera Ordine Mauriziano. Largo Turati 62 – Torino, Italy5 Cardiac Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, Brighton & Sussex University Hospital, Brighton BN2 5BE United KingdomShort title: lung ultrasound and B-lines*Corresponding author:Prof. Luigi Vetrugno, MDDepartment of Medicine, University of Udine, ItalyAnesthesia and Intensive Care ClinicVia Colugna n° 50, 33100 Udine, ItalyPhone: +39 0432 559509Fax: +39 0432 559502Financial Support and Sponsorship: None.Conflict of Interest: Luigi Vetrugno received travel support for Congress Lecture by Cook Medical.The other authors declare no conflict of interest.Key works: Lung Ultrasound; interstitial syndrome, COVID-19, B-lines.Authors’ contributions LV and DO concept, design and drafting the manuscript. TB, FB, EB, FB, GF critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. RK critical review and editing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.We thank Prof. Trovato and Dr Sperandeo for commenting on our article.1 We agree with them that lung ultrasound (LU) imaging is useful and our aim was to provide readers with a succinct overview of how LU was used in the care of COVID-19 patients at two centres in Italy.2 The frequent finding in COVID-19 patients of lung consolidation at the inferior and basal regions means that one of the limitations of LU, which is to perform a complete assessment of the periphery of the lungs, is mitigated, as affected regions are not obscured by the scapula. Other authors have shown that in COVID-19 patients, LU provided results similar to those of computed tomography (CT) of the lung and superior to those of standard chest x-rays.3-5 Therefore, LU provides clinicians with another mode of lung imaging that can be performed non-invasively and without the logistic challenges of obtaining CT lung scan in these patients, as is well-known to centers who have been faced with a large caseload.6 As stated in our article, we have not identified an LU finding that is pathognomonic of COVID-19.1-7 However, the presence of B lines in several different clinical situations does not decrease their significance. In medicine, many signs are frequent in various diseases, like fever, but this is not a good reason to underestimate or not consider them at all. Furthermore, emerging ultrasound image analysis based on artificial intelligence and deep learning has the potential to further enhance the utility of LU.8-9 Although caution is needed in terms of exaggerating the power of LU, we hope it will continue to be used widely after the pandemic.ReferencesSperandeo M, Trovato G. Usefulness of lung ultrasound imaging in Covid-19 pneumonia: the persisting need of safety and evidences. Echocardiography. in press (ECHO-2020-0386)Vetrugno L, Bove T, Orso D, et al. Our Italian experience using lung ultrasound for identification, grading and serial follow-up of severity of lung involvement for management of patients with COVID-19. Echocardiography. 2020;37:625‐627. doi:10.1111/echo.14664Huang Y, Wang S, Liu Y. A Preliminary Study on the Ultrasonic Manifestations of Peripulmonary Lesions of Non-Critical Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19). SSRN. 2020. doi: 10.21203/rs.2.24369/v1Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, et al. A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version). Mil Med Res. 2020;7:4. doi: 10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6Convissar D, Gibson LE, Berra L, Bittner EA, Chang MG. Application of Lung Ultrasound during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 30]. Anesth Analg. 2020;10.1213/ANE.0000000000004929. doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000004929Wang E, Mei W, Shang Y, et al. Chinese Association of Anesthesiologists Expert Consensus on the Use of Perioperative Ultrasound in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 10]. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2020;S1053-0770(20)30325-6. doi:10.1053/j.jvca.2020.04.002Vetrugno L, Bove T, Orso D, Bassi F, Boero E, Ferrari G. Lung Ultrasound and the COVID-19 ”Pattern”: Not All That Glitters Today Is Gold Tomorrow [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 8]. J Ultrasound Med. 2020;10.1002/jum.15327. doi:10.1002/jum.15327Corradi F, Brusasco C, Vezzani A, et al. Computer-aided quantitative ultrasonography for detection of pulmonary edema in mechanically ventilated cardiac surgery patients. Chest 150:640‐651, 2016 doi:10.1016/j.chest.2016.04.013Gullett J, Donnelly JP, Sinert R, et al. Interobserver agreement in the evaluation of B-lines using bedside ultrasound. J Crit Care. 2015;30:1395-1399 doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.08.021
We read with great interest the article by Vetrugno et al. who reported the important association of preoperative diastolic dysfunction (DD) and early liver allograft dysfunction.(#ref-0001) We salute the authors on this detailed and important investigation, and would like to highlight several points. First, the authors provide the cohort analysis of donors’ and recipients’ demographic variables (Table 1, Ref(#ref-0001)), however statistical comparative analysis of the three study groups and these variables is absent. Moreover, additional, important demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity, presence of trans jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; hepato-pulmonary syndrome, porto-pulmonary hypertension, pretransplant hospitalization or vasopressors; QT interval) and intraoperative variables (e.g., hemoglobin, coagulative and thromboelastographic parameters, arrhythmias, immunosuppression, and post-reperfusion syndrome and vasopressors) were not included in the groups’ analysis (Table 4, Ref(#ref-0001)). These parameters are predictive of postoperative major adverse cardiac events and unfavorable transplant outcomes.[2,3](#ref-0002) Lastly, an association does not imply causation,(#ref-0004) and both DD and early graft dysfunction may have an independent, common origin like cirrhotic cardiomyopathy.(#ref-0005) An adjustment for cofounders is, therefore, mandatory; regrettably, the omission of a multivariable analysis from the study obfuscates the interpretation of the observed association. Presumably, DD results in early allograft rejection and dysfunction via the attendant elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, or increased venous pressure and hepatic allograft congestion.(#ref-0006) Postoperative cardiac variables (e.g., troponins, sono- and electrocardiography, venous and pulmonary pressures) and allograft biopsies were not reported in the study, but may direct clinicians to mitigating interventions to improve outcomes in liver allograft recipients with DD.
Background: Congenital pulmonary stenosis (PS) is a progressive disease. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) is the treatment of choice in valvular PS. Aim: We aim to study the relationship between biomarkers and echocardiographic markers in valvular PS and to assess the impact of BPV on these markers. Patients & Methods Patients with moderate and severe valvular PS amenable for BPV were recruited. Serum troponin I was measured. Echocardiographic assessment of PS and right ventricular (RV)function were done. All patients underwent BPV. Troponin level and echocardiographic data were re-assessed two weeks & six months after BPV. Results: Fifty patients with valvular PS were recruited. There was significant correlation between peak SPG and troponin (p < 0.001). Troponin was significantly decreased 2 weeks after BPV. Similarly, there was an initial improvement in RV function. After 6 months of follow up, we divided patients into 2 groups: Group-A: 36 patients with no restenosis. Group-B: 14 patients with restenosis. There were high significant differences between both groups regarding troponin level and RV functions with re-elevated troponin in group-B that correlated with peak PG (r= 0.9, p < 0.001). RV function parameters in group-B became significantly worse 6 months after BPV than those after the initial 2 weeks. Conclusion Troponin correlates with the severity of PS and associates with RV dysfunction. Both troponin & RV functions improved with BPV. Recurrent elevation of troponin and impairment of RV function are associated with PV restenosis and could be set as an indication for repeated balloon dilatation of PV.
Introduction: The development of right atrial (RA) thrombus (RAT) is a known complication of central venous catheter insertion (CVC). Deeper insertion of CVC within the RA may increase the risk for RAT development versus those placed at the superior vena cava (SVC)-RA junction. We sought to evaluate the incidence of catheter-associated RAT as detected by transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs), characterize thrombi though multimodal imaging, and evaluate thrombi management with follow-up imaging. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of consecutive TTEs from our institution between October 1, 2018, and January 1, 2020 in which a venous catheter was visualized in the RA. Studies were reviewed in detail to determine presence of suspected RAT. Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory values, characteristics of the catheter and the thrombus, subsequent imaging and management, and outcomes were collected. Results: A total of 364 TTEs were performed in 290 patients with a venous catheter visualized in the RA. Of these 290 patients, 15 had an imaging suspicion for RAT yielding an incidence of 5.2%. Management strategies included anticoagulation in 13 (86.7%) patients and catheter removal in 11 (73.3%) patients. At eight months follow-up, 11 (73.3%) patients had resolution of RAT based on subsequent imaging. Conclusion: In patients with deeply placed CVC catheters, the incidental detection of RAT by TTE was not trivial. Anticoagulation and catheter removal and replacement, if deemed safe, were effective methods of thrombus management. RAT as a complication of CVCs must be accounted for when addressing factors that influence depth of CVC insertion.
Background: Ibrutinib is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), though echocardiographic predictors of AF have not been studied in this population. We sought to determine whether left atrial (LA) strain on transthoracic echocardiography could identify patients at risk for developing ibrutinib-related atrial fibrillation (IRAF). Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 66 patients who had an echocardiogram prior to ibrutinib treatment. LA strain was measured with TOMTEC Imaging Systems, obtaining peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) and peak atrial contraction strain (PACS) on 4-chamber and 2-chamber views. Statistical analysis was performed with Chi-square analysis, T-test, or binomial regression analysis, with a p-value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Twenty-two patients developed IRAF (33%). Age at initiation of ibrutinib was significantly associated with IRAF (65.1 years vs. 74.1 years, p = 0.002). Mean ibrutinib dose was lower among patients who developed IRAF (388.2 ± 121.7 vs. 448.6 ± 88.4, p = 0.025). E/e’ was significantly higher among patients who developed IRAF (11.5 vs. 9.3, p = 0.04). PALS was significantly lower in patients who developed AF (30.3% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.01). On multivariate regression analysis, age, PALS and PACS were significantly associated with IRAF. On multivariate regression analysis, only PACS remained significantly associated with IRAF while accounting for age. Conclusions: Age, ibrutinib dose, E/e’, and PALS on pre-treatment echocardiogram were significantly associated with development of IRAF. On multivariate regression analyses, age, PALS and PACS remained significantly associated with IRAF. Impaired LA mechanics add to the assessment of patients at risk for IRAF
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a complex clinical entity associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Common comorbidities including hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and increasing age predispose to preclinical diastolic dysfunction that often progresses to frank HFpEF. That said, clinical HFpEF is typically associated with some degree of diastolic dysfunction or can occur in the absence of many conventional diastolic dysfunction indices. The exact biologic links between risk factors, structural changes, and clinical manifestations are not clearly apparent. Innovative approaches including deformation imaging have enabled deeper understanding of HFpEF cardiac mechanics beyond conventional metrics. Furthermore, predictive analytics through data driven platforms have allowed for a deeper understanding of HFpEF phenotypes. This review focuses on the changes in cardiac mechanics that occur through preclinical myocardial dysfunction to clinically apparent HFpEF.
Mitral commissural prolapse or flail, either isolated or combined with more extensive degenerative valve disease imposes several challenges both on its diagnosis and management whilst being a risk factor for valve reoperation after mitral valve repair. Accurate identification of the prolapsing segment is often not feasible with transthoracic 2D echocardiography, with transesophageal 3D imaging then required for correct diagnosis and surgical planning. Various surgical techniques employed alone or in combination, have yielded good results in the repair of commissural prolapse. Herein, we analyze the specific characteristics of commissural disease focusing our attention on 2D and 3D echocardiographic findings and we briefly comment on techniques employed for surgical correction of the disease.
Inadvertent endocardial lead malposition is recognised as a rare incident which is usually underreported and if recognised during implantation can be easily corrected. This phenomenon is caused by the ventricular lead unintentionally crossing a pre-existing patent foremen ovale, septal defects (atrial or ventricular) or directly from the aorta via an accidental subclavian puncture resulting in the lead implanting into the left ventricle. While this is a rare occurrence we report the incidental finding of pacemaker lead malposition during a routine follow-up transthoracic echocardiogram and the benefits of three dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography in this patient prior to lead extraction.
A patient with heart failure due to dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy presented in cardiogenic shock for institution of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. To provide adequate venous drainage and simultaneous decompression of the left atrium (indirect left ventricular venting) a single venous cannula was placed across the interatrial septum so the distal orifice and side ports were located within the left atrium and the proximal set of side ports at the cavoatrial junction. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated utility in guiding cannula placement and appropriate positioning within the left atrium.
Background: Stress echocardiography (SE) is an established technique for assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) which is difficult to perform and interpret. Left ventricular stroke volume (SV) is readily estimated with Doppler echocardiography. It can be affected by myocardial ischemia, with possible adjunctive value during SE. Methods: Patients underwent Bruce protocol SE with SV estimated before and after maximal treadmill exertion post routine regional wall analysis. Incremental change in SV (ΔSV) with exercise was measured. Results: A derivation cohort (n=273) was established to test the hypothesis. An optimal cut-off for detection on inducible ischemia was ΔSV ≤ +10ml. The validation cohort of consecutive patients (n = 1093, 376 [34%] female; age 59±12 years) were followed clinically after SE for 20,460 patient-months. There were 1000 patients with non-ischemic SE, and 93 patients with studies suggestive of myocardial ischemia. Secondary analysis yielded 831 patients with a normal exercise response (ΔSV > +10ml) and 192 with an abnormal ΔSV ≤ +10ml. Time to first combined adverse cardiac event (composite of angina, acute coronary syndrome, cardiac revascularization, worsening New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, a reduction in EF, and cardiovascular death) was analysed and adjusted using Cox proportional hazards regression. The hazard ratio for an adverse event with an abnormal ΔSV response (≤10ml) was 10.3 (95% confidence intervals 5.6-19.1, p<0.0001). Conclusions: SV assessment during SE is feasible and readily performed. It is simple, practical and has incremental diagnostic and prognostic value when added to exercise regional wall motion analysis.
Background: Although diastolic dysfunction is common among patients treated with cancer therapy, no clear evidence has been shown that it predicts systolic dysfunction. This study evaluated the correlation of longitudinal diastolic strain time (Dst) with the routine echocardiography diastolic parameters and to estimated its role in the early detection of cardiotoxicity among patients with active breast cancer. Methods: Data were collected as part of the Israel Cardio-Oncology Registry (ICOR), a prospective registry enrolling all adult patients referred to the cardio-oncology clinic. All patients with breast cancer, planned for Doxorubicin therapy were included. Echocardiography, including Global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) and Dst, was assessed at baseline before chemotherapy (T1), during Doxorubicin therapy (T2) and after the completion of Doxorubicin therapy (T3). Cardiotoxicity were determined by GLS relative reduction of ≥15%. Dst was assessed as the time measured (ms) of the myocardium lengthening during diastole. =diastolic time (ms) measured. Results: Among 69 patients, 67 (97.1%) were females with a mean age 52±13years. Diastolic strain timeDst measurement was significantly associated with the standard routine diastolic parameters. Significant GLS reduction was observed in 10 (20%) patients at T3 . Both in a univariate and a multivariate analyses the change in Ds basal time from T1 to T2 emerged to be significantly associated with GLS reduction at T3 (p<0.04). Conclusions: Among breast cancer patients, Dst time showed high correlation to standard the routine diastolic echocardiography parameters. Relative reductionChange in Ds basal time emerged associated with clinically significant systolic dysfunction as measured by GLS reduction.