A 60-year-old female was referred to our clinic for evaluation of her rapidly progressive dyspnea, she had no previuos history of heart disease. A murmur was noted on her examination and transthoracic echocardiography was so difficult to be performed due to poor acoustic windows so she was referred to do a transesophageal echocardiography that showed an ostium primum atrial septal defect (ASD) with left to right shunt and a quadrileaflet mitral valve with severe regurgitation. Later on, she underwent surgery with Ostium Primum ASD closure by a patch and double cleft repair by suture after right heart catheterization.
Background: The impact of the increased mitral gradient (MG) on outcomes is ambiguous. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a) periinterventional dynamics of MG, b) the impact of intraprocedural MG on clinical outcomes, and c) predictors for unfavourable MG values after MitraClip. Methods: We prospectively included patients undergoing MitraClip. All patients underwent echocardiography at baseline, intraprocedurally, at discharge, and after six months. 12-month survival was reassessed. Results: 175 patients (age 81.2±8.2 years, 61.2% male) with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were included. We divided our cohort into two groups with a threshold of intraprocedural MG of 4.5 mmHg, which was determined by the multivariate analysis for the prediction of 12-month mortality (<4.5 mmHg: Group 1, 4.5 mmHg: Group 2). Intraprocedural MG 4.5 mmHg was found to be the strongest independent predictor for 12-month mortality (HR: 2.33, p=0.03, OR: 1.70, p=0.05) and ≥3.9 mmHg was associated with adverse functional outcomes (OR: 1.96, p=0.04). The baseline leaflet-to-annulus index (>1.1) was found to be the strongest independent predictor (OR: 9.74, p=0.001) for unfavourable intraprocedural MG, followed by the number of implanted clips (p=0.01), MG at baseline (p=0.02) and central clip implantation (p=0.05). Conclusion: MG shows time-varying and condition-depended dynamics periinterventionally. Patients with persistent increased (≥4.5 mmHg) MG at discharge showed the worst functional outcomes and the highest 12-month mortality, followed by patients with an intra-hospital decrease in MG to values below 4.5 mmHg. Pre-interventional echocardiographic and procedural parameters can predict unfavourable postprocedural MG.
Background: The sustainability of the results of mitraclip procedures is a source of concern. Aims: To investigate risk factors of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) recurrence after Mitraclip in primary MR. Methods and results: Eighty-three patients undergoing successful Mitraclip procedures were retrospectively included. Valve anatomy and Mitraclips placement were comprehensively analyzed by post-processing 3D echocardiographic acquisition. The primary composite endpoint was the recurrence of severe MR. Mean age was 83±7 years-old, 37 (44%) were female. Median follow-up was 381 days (IQR 195-717) and 17 (20%) patients reached the primary endpoint. Main causes of recurrence of severe MR were relapse of a prolapse (64%) and single leaflet detachment (23%). Posterior coaptation line length (HR 1.06 95%CI 1.01-1.12 p=0.02), poor imaging quality (HR 3.84, 95%CI1.12-13.19; p=0.03), and inter-clip distance (HR 1.60, 95%CI 1.27-2.02; p<0.01) were associated with the occurrence of the primary endpoint. Conclusions: Recurrence of severe MR after a MitraClip procedure for primary MR is common and results from a complex interplay between anatomical (tissue excess) and procedural criteria (quality of ultrasound guidance and MitraClips spacing).
Background: Congenital pulmonary stenosis (PS) is a progressive disease. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) is the treatment of choice in valvular PS. Aim: We aim to study the relationship between biomarkers and echocardiographic markers in valvular PS and to assess the impact of BPV on these markers. Patients & Methods Patients with moderate and severe valvular PS amenable for BPV were recruited. Serum troponin I was measured. Echocardiographic assessment of PS and right ventricular (RV)function were done. All patients underwent BPV. Troponin level and echocardiographic data were re-assessed two weeks & six months after BPV. Results: Fifty patients with valvular PS were recruited. There was significant correlation between peak SPG and troponin (p < 0.001). Troponin was significantly decreased 2 weeks after BPV. Similarly, there was an initial improvement in RV function. After 6 months of follow up, we divided patients into 2 groups: Group-A: 36 patients with no restenosis. Group-B: 14 patients with restenosis. There were high significant differences between both groups regarding troponin level and RV functions with re-elevated troponin in group-B that correlated with peak PG (r= 0.9, p < 0.001). RV function parameters in group-B became significantly worse 6 months after BPV than those after the initial 2 weeks. Conclusion Troponin correlates with the severity of PS and associates with RV dysfunction. Both troponin & RV functions improved with BPV. Recurrent elevation of troponin and impairment of RV function are associated with PV restenosis and could be set as an indication for repeated balloon dilatation of PV.
The diagnosis of acute myocarditis (AM) remains challenging because of its diverse clinical manifestations. Thus, a wide range of diagnostic tests may be warranted. Although cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the preferred imaging technique, it may not be applicable in the acute AM phase. Our case report highlights the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of echocardiographic examination. In the first 2-dimensional echocardiography, the focal echobright was presented. A reduced value of global longitudinal strain, and regional disturbances of segmental myocardial strain, both longitudinal and circumferential, in the epicardial layer, were detected with a good correlation with CMR results.
Objective: Cardiovascular involvement due to iron overload is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with beta-thalassaemia major (β-TM). However many patients remain asymptomatic until the late stage. In this study, we investigated the role of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) findings and endothelial dysfunction parameters in asymptomatic β-TM patients, and the relationship between these parameters and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 * value. Methods: 51 asymptomatic β-TM patients who were receiving regular blood transfusions were evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and RT3DE examinations including endothelial dysfunction parameters. The study population was divided into two subgroups based on their cardiac MRI T2* values (MRI T2* ≤20ms and >20ms). The relationships between serum ferritin levels, 2DE and RT3DE measurements, endothelial dysfunction parameters, and cardiac MRI T2* values were investigated. Results: Although all left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) values obtained by 2DE were within normal limits (≥50%), they were not associated with MRI T2* values. LVEFRT3D (53.25 +2.33 vs 58.81 +1.02), SDI12 (6.53 +0.56 vs 2.85 +0.48), SDI16 (7.65 +0.75 vs 3.26 +0.49) were significantly different and negatively correlated between two groups respectively . Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) (6.08% + 0.34 vs 14.46% + 1.12), aortic strain (7.79% + 2.19 vs 12.76% + 4.19), and serum ferritin values were significantly different and negatively correlated between two groups respectively. Conclusion: Decreased LVEF and increased SDI by RT3DE could be parameters of early cardiac deterioration. Decreased FMD and aortic strain may be good predictors of subclinical cardiovascular involvement in asymptomatic patients with β-TM.
Purpose: An elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure is the main finding in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, which is estimated with an algorithm using echocardiographic parameters recommended by the recent American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) guideline. In this study, we sought to determine the efficacy of LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) to estimate the elevated LV filling pressure. Methods and Results: 73 prospectively selected patients undergoing left ventricular catheterization (mean age 63.19±9.64, 68.5% male) participated in this study. Using the algorithm, the LV filling pressure was estimated with the echo parameters obtained within 24hrs before the catheterization. The LV GLS was measured using the automated functional imaging system (GE, Vivid E9 USA). Invasive LV pre-A pressure corresponding to mean left atrial pressure (LAP) was used as a reference, and >12 mm Hg was defined as elevated. The invasive LV filling pressure was elevated in 43 (58.9%) and normal in 30 patients (41.1%). In 9 (12.3%) patients of 73 are defined as indeterminate based on the 2016 algorithm. Using the ROC method, -18.1% of LV GLS estimated the LV filling pressure (AUC=0.79, 73% specificity, 84% sensitivity) with higher sensitivity compared with the algorithm (AUC=0.76, 77% specificity, 72% sensitivity). Conclusions: We confirmed that the LV GLS is feasible and reproducible in estimating LV filling pressure. In addition, LV GLS highly predicts elevated LAP as E/e’ and TR jet velocity and may be used as major criteria for the diagnosis of HFpEF
Background: Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) evaluation of left ventricular (LV) volume and function in pediatrics compares favorably with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to establish from a multicenter, normal pediatric z-score values of 3DE left ventricular volumes and function. Methods: Six hundred and ninety-eight healthy children (ages 0 to 18 years) were recruited from five centers. LV 3DE was acquired from the 4-chamber view. A vendor independent software analyzed end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) using semi-automated quantification. Body surface area (BSA) based z-scores were generated. Intraobserver and interobserver variability were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) and repeatability coefficient (RC). Results: Z-scores were generated for ESV, EDV, and SV. The ICC for intraobserver variability for EDV, ESV, and SV were 0.99, 0.99, and 0.99 respectively. The ICC for interobserver variability for EDV, ESV, and SV were 0.98, 0.94, and 0.98 respectively. The RC for intraobserver and interobserver variability for LV EF was 4.39% (95% CI: 3.01, 5.59) and interobserver was 7.08% (95%CI: 5.51, 8.42). Conclusions: We report pediatric Z-scores for normal LV volumes using the semi-automated method from five centers, enhancing its generalizability. 3DE evaluation of LV volumes and EF in pediatric patients is highly reproducible.
Background: Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction increases mortality in patients undergoing transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) in degenerated bioprostheses, annuloplasty rings, and native mitral valves. We aimed to evaluate the left ventricular outflow tract area after TMVI using 3-diensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and to investigate the pre-procedural cardiac geometry affects the LVOT area after TMVI. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed echocardiography data in 43 patients who had TMVI. A change in pressure gradient across LVOT from before to after TMVI (∆PG) and post-procedure 3D cross sectional area (CSA) at the level of the most distal portion of the mitral valve stent that was closest to the LV apex were assessed as evidence of LVOT narrowing. Results: TMVI with the use of balloon-expandable valve system was performed for 24 bioprostheses, 7 annuloplasty rings, and 12 native valves. Compared to patients without increase in LVOT gradient (∆PG <10 mmHg; n=33), patients with increase in LVOT gradient (∆PG ≥10 mmHg; n=10) had smaller LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), greater LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and smaller aorto-mitral (AM) angle. CSA at the valve stent distal edge showed strong association with ∆PG (r=-0.68, P<0.0001). Only small AM angle was associated with small CSA at the valve stent ventricular edge on multivariable analysis, independent of LVESV and LVEF. Conclusion: Pre-procedural AM angle as well as LVESV and LVEF were associated with LVOT narrowing in patients undergoing transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve, valve-in-ring, and valve-in-native valve implantation. These data may be useful for preprocedural planning.
A 17-year-old male was admitted for the management of multiple fractures after sustaining blunt thoracic trauma. He was hemodynamically stable and without any cardiac symptoms. He was admitted with fracture of T4 end plate, manubrium and left first rib, right pulmonary contusion, left apical pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. The patient underwent echocardiography and cardiac CT angiogram for the work up of aortic injury as the patient had new aortic regurgitation murmur, troponin rise and RBBB. He was found to have aortic root rupture, type A aortic dissection and acute severe aortic insufficiency. The patient underwent surgical aortic valve and root replacement with Bentall procedure with good outcome.
First described in 1965 by Johnson and Wilcox, partial absence of the tricuspid valve (TV) associated with a ventricular septal defect(VSD) is a very rare malformation.(1) Heart failure secondary to severe TV regurgitation results in-utero fetal compromise. (2) We present here a fetus with partial absence of the tricuspid valve with conoventricular septal defect.
Congenital aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus is reported in 0.8% in neonatal autopsies, however true incidence is unknown because of high rate of asymptomatic cases and spontaneous regression. Possible complications in symptomatic cases are; thromboembolism, spontaneous rupture, erosion, infection, compression of airways and death. In this report we present a newborn with giant DAA diagnosed in first day of life, surgically treated after thrombosis of aneurysm.
Aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva are rare, with dissecting aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva that extend into the interventricular septum being even more rare. This report describes a young patient with syphilis and a quadricuspid aortic valve who experienced a spontaneously dissecting aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva and the basal interventricular septum.
Introduction: Several homeostatic changes like an increase in sympathoadrenal response and oxidative stress occur in hypoglycemia. As a result of these findings, an increase in inflammation and pre-atherogenic factors is observed and these changes may lead to endothelial dysfunction. Aim: Our study aims to reveal possible cardiac risks (systolic-diastolic functions and endothelial dysfunctions) in patients who have applied to the emergency department with hypoglycemia. Methods: This cross-sectional, case-control study included 46 hypoglycemia patients who admitted to the emergency with symptoms compatible with hypoglycemia and diagnosed with hypoglycemia and 30 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated with baseline echocardiography, tissue-doppler imaging(carotid and brachial artery). Also, the fasting blood tests of the patients referred to the internal medicine department were examined. Results: There were no differences between the groups regarding age, weight, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Vitamin B12, TSH, and fasting blood glucose levels were similar in the groups’ blood tests (all p values>0.05). We observed a statistically significant decrease in diastolic dysfunction parameters: E/A and E/e’ ratios (respectively, p=0.020 and 0.026). It was shown that insulin resistance was influential in forming these considerable differences. The patient group observed that the carotid intima-media thickness was more remarkable(p=0.001), and the brachial flow-mediated dilatation value was smaller(p=0.003), giving an idea about endothelial functions.
We report applications of novel high-frame rate blood speckle tracking (BST) echocardiography in a series of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). BST echocardiography was highly feasible, reproducible, and fast. High-frame rate BST provided complimentary information to conventional color-Doppler data enhancing the visualization and understanding of anomalous blood trajectories (e.g., shunt direction, regurgitant volumes, and stenotic jets) and vortex formation. High-frame rate BST echocardiography is a new, promising imaging tool that may be helpful for deeper understanding of complex CHD physiology.
Case 1. An 82-year-old man with history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and multiple admissions due to acute decompensated heart failure was evaluated for moderate to severe secondary MR due to atrial dilation (atrial functional MR). TTE showed severe biatrial enlargement with a left atrial volume of 117mL and a left atrial volume index of 65.5ml/m2. It also showed LV of normal size, left ventricular LVIDd of 4.5cm and LVEF of 55%. En face view revealed two central jets arising from the coaptation gaps between posterior mitral leaflet indentations (P1/P2 and P2/P3) (Panel A). (Panel B) Transillumination rendering on 3D TEE, highlighted two distinct coaptation gaps between posterior mitral leaflet scallops. Case 2. A 63-years-old woman with medical history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (35%) was evaluated for moderate to severe secondary MR. TTE showed the LV dilation with LVIDd of 5.7cm. TEE revealed severe eccentric MR. (Panel C) 3D color Doppler TEE imaging of the mitral valve showed a severe regurgitant jet, originated in-between P2 and P3 posterior scallops. (Panel D) Transillumination rendering on 3D TEE, view from left atrium, in systole highlighted the coaptation gap. (Panel E) 3D color Doppler TEE imaging showed residual mild MR after a mitral clip was deployed grasping the medial aspect of P2 and A2 scallops covering the coaptation defect. (Panel F) Transillumination rendering on 3D TEE, view from LV, showed complete resolution of the coaptation gap between posterior scallops after clip deployment.
Introduction: The development of right atrial (RA) thrombus (RAT) is a known complication of central venous catheter insertion (CVC). Deeper insertion of CVC within the RA may increase the risk for RAT development versus those placed at the superior vena cava (SVC)-RA junction. We sought to evaluate the incidence of catheter-associated RAT as detected by transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs), characterize thrombi though multimodal imaging, and evaluate thrombi management with follow-up imaging. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of consecutive TTEs from our institution between October 1, 2018, and January 1, 2020 in which a venous catheter was visualized in the RA. Studies were reviewed in detail to determine presence of suspected RAT. Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory values, characteristics of the catheter and the thrombus, subsequent imaging and management, and outcomes were collected. Results: A total of 364 TTEs were performed in 290 patients with a venous catheter visualized in the RA. Of these 290 patients, 15 had an imaging suspicion for RAT yielding an incidence of 5.2%. Management strategies included anticoagulation in 13 (86.7%) patients and catheter removal in 11 (73.3%) patients. At eight months follow-up, 11 (73.3%) patients had resolution of RAT based on subsequent imaging. Conclusion: In patients with deeply placed CVC catheters, the incidental detection of RAT by TTE was not trivial. Anticoagulation and catheter removal and replacement, if deemed safe, were effective methods of thrombus management. RAT as a complication of CVCs must be accounted for when addressing factors that influence depth of CVC insertion.
We present a case of a 75-year-old woman with typical myocardial infarction, however coronary angiogram was negative. Echocardiography identified the rare cause of chest pain, as a mobile mass of aortic valve was found to obstruct the coronary ostium. histopathology revealed a papillary fibroelastoma (PFE). Chest pain was relieved after surgical resection of the mass.