Objective: To study the value of fetal epicardial fat thickness (EFT) in gestational diabetes mellitus in the third trimester of pregnancy and its relationship with clinical parameters and perinatal outcomes. Methods: A total of 80 participants, including 40 with diagnosed GDM and 40 healthy pregnant women, were included in the study. Demographic data were obtained from medical records. Sonographic examinations were performed, such as amniotic fluid value, fetal biometric measurements, and Doppler parameters of the umbilical artery. Fetal EFT values were measured at the free wall of the right ventricle using a reference line with echocardiographic methods. Correlation tests were performed to evaluate the relationship between fetal EFT and clinical and perinatal parameters. P < 0.05 were interpreted as statistically significant. Results: The fetal EFT value was statistically higher in the GDM group than in the control group (p:0.000). Spearman correlation tests revealed statistically significant but weak positive correlations between fetal EFT value, 1-hour 100-gr OGTT, birth weight, and BMI (r: 0.198, p:0.047; r:0.395, p:0.012; r:0.360, p:0.042, respectively). The optimal fetal EFT threshold for predicting GDM disease was found as 1.55 mm, with a specificity of 74.4% and sensitivity of 75.0%. Statistically significant differences between the two groups in umbilical artery Doppler resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D) were not found (p:0.337; p:0.503; p:0.155;). BMI and amniotic fluid volume were higher in the GDM group compared to the control group (p:0.009; p:0.000). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that increased fetal EFT may occur as a reflection of changes in glucose metabolism in intrauterine life. Future studies with larger series, including the study of neonatal metabolic parameters, will contribute to the understanding of the importance of fetal EFT in determining the metabolic status of the fetus.
Background: Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is an emerging method for volumetric cardiac measurements; however, few vendor-neutral analysis packages exist. Ventripoint Medical System Plus (VMS3.0+) proprietary software utilizes a validated MRI database of normal ventricular and atrial morphologies to calculate chamber volumes. This study aimed to compare left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) volumes obtained using VMS3.0+ to Tomtec echocardiography analysis software. Methods: Healthy controls (n=98) aged 0 to 18 years were prospectively recruited and 3D DICOM datasets focused on the LV and LA acquired. LV and LA volumes and ejection fractions were measured using TomTec Image Arena 3D LV analysis package and using VMS3.0+. Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman’s plots and intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated, along with analysis time. Results: There was a very good correlation between VMS and Tomtec LV systolic (r 2 = 0.88, ICC 0.89 [95% CI 0.81,0.94]), and diastolic (r 2 = 0.88, ICC 0.90 [95% CI 0.77,0.95]) volumes, and between VMS and Tomtec LA diastolic (r 2 =0.75, ICC 0.89 [95% CI 0.81,0.93]) and systolic (r 2 =0.88, ICC 0.91 [95% CI 0.78,0.96]) volumes on linear regression models. Natural log transformations eliminated heteroscedasticity, and power transformations provided best fit. The time (mins) to analyze volumes using VMS were less than using Tomtec (LV VMS 2.3±0.5, Tomtec 3.3±0.8, p<0.001; LA: VMS 1.9±0.4, Tomtec 3.4±1.0, p<0.001). Conclusions: There was very good correlation between knowledge-based (VMS3.0+) and 3D (Tomtec) algorithms when measuring 3D echocardiography derived LA and LV volumes in pediatric patients. VMS was slightly faster than Tomtec in analyzing volumetric measurements.
Herein we present a case of concomitant congenital anomalies with an iatrogenic defect. The female patient underwent a percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty due to rheumatic mitral stenosis. Unfortunately, an iatrogenic atrial septal defect (ASD) occurred and also, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return was observed at post-procedure evaluation. The patient had severe symptoms and the right heart chambers were dilated on imaging. But perhaps, the most crucial point was that the patient was planning a pregnancy. After a difficult and patient-involved decision process, the patient underwent to successful robotic surgery for iatrogenic ASD and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. After operation, the patient was asymptomatic and right heart chambers normalized.
COVID-19 related MIS-C (Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children) can present with cardiovascular complications like shock, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, and coronary artery dilatation. The majority of MIS-C associated coronary artery abnormalities are dilation or small aneurysms which are transient and resolve in a few weeks[[1, 2]](#ref-0001). We present here a case of a 3-month-old child who was noted to have giant aneurysms of her coronary arteries (LAD and RCA) twenty-six days after testing positive for COVID-19. She was treated with IVIG, infliximab, and glucocorticoids along with aspirin, clopidogrel and enoxaparin. She did not show any signs of coronary ischemia or cardiac dysfunction but continued to have persistent giant coronary artery aneurysms involving the LAD (z-score ~35) and RCA (z-score ~30) [Fig. 1]. This study emphasizes the importance of early detection and aggressive management of MIS-C to prevent potentially life-threatening consequences.
Objectives In stress echocardiography (SE), dipyridamole (DIP) and dynamic stress (ExSE) are reported as safer than dobutamine stress (DSE). We investigated whether commonly used stressors cause myocardial injury, measured by high sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT). Methods 135 patients (DSE n=46, ExsE n=46, DIP n=43) with negative SE were studied. Exclusion criteria were known ischemic heart disease (IHD), baseline wall motion abnormalities, left ventricle systolic dysfunction/regional wall motion abnormalities, septum/posterior wall ≥13 mm, diabetes, baseline hsTnT level ≥14 ng/L, baseline blood pressure ≥160/100 mmHg, peak pulmonary pressure ≥45mmHg, eGFR <1mL/s/1.73m2, more than mild to moderate valvular disease and dobutamine side effects. HsTnT was measured before and 180 minutes after the test. Results All patients had low pre-test probability of IHD. HsTnT increased in DSE, less so in ExSE, and unchanged in DIP group [9.4 (1.5–58.6), 1.1 (-0.9–15.7), -0.1 (-1.4–2.1) ng/L, p<0.001]. In DSE, hsTnT change was associated with peak dobutamine dose (r=0.30, p= 0.045), test length (r=0.43, p=0.003) and atropine use (p<0001). In ExSE, hsTnT rise was more likely in females (p=0.012) and elderly (>65 years) (r=0.32, p=0.03), no association was found between atropine use (p=0.786) or test length and hsTnT rise (r=0.10, p=0.530). Conclusions DSE is associated with myocardial injury in patients with negative SE, no injury was observed in DIP and only mild one in ExSE. Whether myocardial injury is causative of the higher reported adverse event rates in DSE remains to be determined.
Aim: We aimed to examine fetal cardiac output (CO) in patients who recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Materials: This prospective study included 48 pregnant women recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection and 50 control cases. SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in patients. Fetal echocardiographic evaluations were performed at 24-37 weeks of gestation in pregnant women who recovered from the infection and control group. Results: The median value of ultrasound evaluation was 34 (2.6) weeks of gestation in the recovery from the SARS-CoV-2 infection (RSI) group, and 32 (7.6) weeks in the control group (p=0.565). Left cardiac output (LCO) z score was significantly lower in the RSI group than the control group (p=0,041). LCO and combine cardiac output (CCO) z score were significantly lower in the severe disease group than mild, moderate disease groups, and controls (p=0,019 and p=0,013). CCO (mL/min/kg) was decreased in the severe disease group when compared with control and mild disease groups (p=0,044). Fetal distress, preterm delivery rate, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were found to be higher in the severe disease group compared to the control group (p=0,010, p=0,009, and p<0,001 respectively). Conclusion: In the present study, fetal cardiac output in pregnant women with recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection was found significantly decreased, especially in whom had severe diseases. Placental dysfunction and inflammatory cytokines might cause fetal cardiac changes. Further studies could be clarified on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on fetal cardiac function.
We report a rare case of multiple giant coronary artery aneurysms combined with anomalous aortic origin of left coronary artery in a 30-years old man precisely diagnosed by multimodality imaging, including echocardiography, coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and selective coronary angiography. The imaging results were finally confirmed by surgery. We present the clinical value of multimodality imaging in diagnosing coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous origin.
Background: Accessory mitral valve tissue (AMVT) is an extremely rare causes left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction and is usually incidentally detected in childhood. It is often associated with other cardiac and vascular congenital malformations. Case Presentation: In this case, we present a 15-year-old girl was diagnosed with AMVT by transesophageal echocardiography, resulting in LVOT obstruction during systole. Interestingly enough, the patient’s accessory mitral valve remained undetected for years until he became symptomatic for wide ASD. Successful closure of the ASD with resection of the AMVT was performed with a transaortic approach. The patient was hemodynamically stable postoperatively. There were no abnormalities in the mitral valves and LVOT. Conclusion: It was also unusual to see AMVT with ASD instead of other frequently associated other congenital anomalies. Accessory mitral valve should be considered a rare but important cause of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in childhood.
[Abstract] Objective To review the imaging characteristics and evaluate the diagnostic value of echocardiography for fetal congenitally unguarded tricuspid valve orifice (CUTVO). Methods Doppler echocardiography was performed and the images were compared with operative and necropsy findings in ten fetuses with CUTVO. The aim of the study was to summarize the characteristics of fetal echocardiography and analyze the causes of missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. Results There were six cases with complete absence and four cases with partial absence of the tricuspid leaflet. In seven of ten cases the pregnancy was terminated. In six cases CUTVO was confirmed by autopsy after induced labor, while one case had no autopsy. After birth, one case died due to severe illness. The two remaining cases survived with an atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus on postpartum ultrasonic scans. These cases underwent surgical treatment resulting in less moderate tricuspid regurgitation. Among all cases, four were misdiagnosed and diagnosis for CUVTO missed, but CUVTO was demonstrated after induced labor. CUTVO ultrasonographic characteristics consist of the atrioventricular connection with normal arteries and the tricuspid valve device partially or completely absent. The annulus of the tricuspid valve can be describe as “empty” in the apical 4-chamber view, Doppler evaluation shows to-and-fro flow across the tricuspid orifice with low velocity and two-way spectrum. Conclusion diagnosis and differential diagnosis of CUTVO by fetal echocardiography has important clinical value.
A 22-year male presented with complaints of dyspnea. Multimodality imaging revealed a polypoidal right atrial mass with sub-massive pulmonary embolism. The patient underwent urgent surgery. The pathological examination confirmed it as cardiac myxoma. Cardiac myxoma, a most common primary cardiac tumor, is commonly found in the left atrium. The right atrium is an uncommon site and the usual mode of presentation is the tumor or thrombus embolisation to the pulmonary circulation.
Right atrial appendage aneurysms (RAAAs) are extremely rare in cardiac anomaly. According to the literature, no more than 25 cases have been reported so far, among which only 3 cases were children. Here, we reported an infant with a giant RAAA and severe symptoms. The RAAA was diagnosed by echocardiography and surgically resected under cardiopulmonary bypass. The role of transesophageal echocardiography was very important during the aneurysm resection surgery, which helped surgeons to plan surgical procedures during the surgery and evaluate the surgical effect postoperatively.
Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis is a growing recognized entity, especially with the increasing use of the valve in vale procedures and the advent of new detection technologies (e.g., 4D CT and 4D echocardiography). However, the optimal management strategy in the acute context is not established. This paper presents a case of early thrombosis following the percutaneous tricuspid valve in vale procedure that was successfully managed with thrombolysis.
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are associated with high mortality rates and require prompt diagnosis with subsequent intervention. CT scan is considered the gold-standard for diagnosis, however, in the acute setting ultrasound may be a reasonable diagnostic test for certain patients. We report a case that demonstrates the utility of bedside ultrasound of rAAA for a patient in extremis. Also, we provide a brief review of literature for the diagnosis of rAAA with ultrasound.
Massive myocardial calcification is a very rare finding. Accurate identification and characterization may help the clinicians to determine the etiology and clinical significance. In this case, the diagnostic pathway excluded previous myocardial infarction, myocarditis and calcium-phosphate disorders. A possible dystrophic etiology was considered. There are no standardized imaging features available to classify specific subtypes of intramyocardial calcifications. The relative merits of cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance in providing complimentary diagnostic information for calcific myocardial lesions is shown. Knowledge of the potential etiology and their imaging patterns are important to provide a concise and accurate differential diagnosis.
Aim: To evaluate the prognostic utility of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Patients & methods: This study is a retrospective cohort analysis. Patients diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from March 2014 to March 2019 were included . HCM patients were stratified into two groups based on the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE).Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were then constructed and Cox regression models were employed to gauge the prognostic relevance of RDW and LVMI for HCM patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluated the survival and MACE-free rate in patients with different level of RDW and LVMI. Results: A total of 300 patients with HCM were enrolled in this study and followed up for 40.56±18.33 months. Among them, 117 MACE (39.00%), 40 all-cause deaths (13.33%), 29 cardiovascular deaths (9.67%). The level of RDW, LVMI, creatinine (Cr) and B-type pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) were statistically different between the MACE group and Non-MACE group ( P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that after adjusting for confounding factors, RDW and LVMI were independent predictors of all-cause mortality and MACE in HCM patients. ROC showed that RDW>0.13 and LVMI>181g/m 2 are the cut-off value to predict all-cause mortality and MACE. The AUC of the combination predicting the occurrence of all-cause mortality and MACE are 0.890 and 0.885 respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the survival rate and MACE-free survival rate of group 1 (RDW≦0.13 and LVMI≦181g/m 2) were significantly higher than group 2 (RDW>0.13 or LVMI>181g/m 2), and group 3 (RDW >0.13 and LVMI>181g/m 2) ( P=0.000). Conclusion: We determined that increased RDW and LVMI was independently associated with MACE incidence and risk of mortality in HCM patients. Combined evaluation of RDW and LVMI yielded a more accurate predictive model of HCM patient outcomes relative to the use of either of these metrics in isolation. Our research can provide a theoretical basis in the occurrence of MACE for the high-risk HCM and intervene them properly and timely.
We describe an adult patient who presented with purulent pericarditis in whom two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a marked decrease in the area of the right ventricular wall together with the overlying fibrin following intrapericardial administration of a fibrinolytic agent. Documentation of this decrease by measurements performed and illustrated on two-dimensional images have not been reported previously in an adult patient with purulent pericarditis, to the best of our knowledge.
Introduction: Cardiac point-of-care ultrasound (c-POCUS) is an increasingly implemented diagnostic tool with the potential to guide clinical management. We sought to characterize and analyze the existing c-POCUS literature with a focus on the temporal trends and differences across specialties. Methods: A literature search for c-POCUS and related terms was conducted using Ovid (MEDLINE and Embase) and Web of Science databases through 2020. Eligible publications were classified by publication type and topic, author specialty, geographical region of senior author, and journal specialty. Results: The initial search produced 1761 potential publications. A strict definition of c-POCUS yielded a final total of 574 cardiac POCUS manuscripts. A yearly increase in c-POCUS publications was observed. Nearly half of publications were original research (48.8%) followed by case report or series (22.8%). Most publications had an emergency medicine senior author (37.5%), followed by cardiology (20.2%), anesthesiology (12.2%), and critical care (12.2%). The proportion authored by emergency medicine and cardiologists has decreased over time while those by anesthesiology and critical care has generally increased, particularly over the last decade. First authorship demonstrated a similar trend. Articles were published at similar numbers in emergency medicine journals (23.0%) and cardiology journals (19.9%). Conclusion: The annual number of c-POCUS publications has steadily increased over time reflecting the increased recognition and utilization of c-POCUS. This study can help inform clinicians of the current state of c-POCUS and augment the discussion surrounding barriers to continued adoption across all specialties.
Objective: Predictors for post-operative reverse remodeling in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are unknown. We performed low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with severe AR and reduced LVEF to evaluate the relationship between contractile reserve (CR) and reverse remodeling after surgery. Methods: In 31 patients with chronic severe AR and reduced LVEF (LVEF < 50%), we performed pre-operative DSE, assessed CR and examined whether changes in preoperative DSE were associated with improvement of post-operative LVEF after aortic valve surgery. Results: The pre-operative echocardiographic findings were as follows: left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic dimension: 67 ± 10 mm, LV end-systolic dimension: 52 ± 13 mm and LVEF: 42% ± 8%. All patients underwent aortic valve surgery. Patients with pre-operative LVEF of >45% exhibited a significant increase in LVEF; however, patients with pre-operative LVEF of <45% showed no significant change. When we examined the results of DSE performed in patients with pre-operative LVEF of <45%, ΔLVEF of ≥6% (with CR) during DSE was related to an improvement in post-operative LVEF; ΔLVEF of ≥6% during DSE predicted an improvement in post-operative LVEF, with a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: DSE may be a helpful tool for predicting post-operative reverse remodeling in patients with severe AR and moderately reduced LVEF.