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Surgical outcomes and optimal approach to treatment of aortic valve endocarditis with aortic root abscess -- systematic review and meta-analysis
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  • William Harris M,
  • Shubhra Sinha,
  • Massimo Caputo,
  • Gianni Angelini,
  • Hunaid Vohra A
William Harris M
University of Bristol
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Shubhra Sinha
University of Bristol
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Massimo Caputo
University of Bristol
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Gianni Angelini
University of Bristol
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Hunaid Vohra A
University of Bristol
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Abstract

Background Data on the postoperative outcomes for patients with infective endocarditis complicated by an aortic root abscess is sparse due to the condition’s low incidence and high mortality rates. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate existing data on the impact of aortic root abscesses (ARA) on the postoperative outcomes of surgically managed infective endocarditis (IE) and to inform optimal surgical approach. Methods The online databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library were searched from 1990 to 2022 for studies comparing ARA with NARA (no ARA) in infective endocarditis. Data was extracted by two independent investigators and aggregated in a random-effects model (Review Manager version 5.3). Risk of bias was assessed using an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results Six clinical studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 1982). The ARA group was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.74 96% CI 1.18-2.56) and late mortality (HR = 1.27 95% CI 1.03-1.58). The reoperation meta-analysis was complicated by high rates of heterogeneity (I 2 = 59%) and found no significant differences in reoperation between group ARA and NARA (no ARA) (HR = 1.48; 95% CI 0.92-2.40). Post-hoc scatter graph showed a strong linear relationship (r=0.998), suggesting hospitals with higher rates of aortic root replacement (ARR) achieve lower rates of reoperation for ARA patients compared with PR. Conclusions The presence of an ARA in aortic valve endocarditis is associated with elevated early and late mortality despite modern standards of care. Additionally, ARR should be considered to have a favourable postoperative profile for use in this context.