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  • Mauno Vihinen
Mauno Vihinen
Lunds Universitet
Author Profile


Genetic variation is described from the perspective of an individual. All the different levels of genetic information and variation are covered, ranging from whether an organism is unmixed or hybrid, has variations in genome, chromosomes and more locally in DNA regions, epigenetic variants or alterations in selfish genetic elements. Genetic constitution and heterogeneity of microbiota are highly relevant for health and wellbeing of an individual. Mutation rates vary widely for variation types e.g. due to sequence context. Genetic information guides numerous aspects in organisms. Types of inheritance, whether Mendelian or non-Mendelian, zygosity, sexual reproduction and sex determination are covered. Functions of DNA and functional effects of variations are introduced, along with mechanism that reduce and modulate functional effects, including TARAR countermeasures and intraindividual genetic conflict. TARAR countermeasures for tolerance, avoidance, repair, attenuation and resistance are essential for life, integrity of genetic information and gene expression. The genetic composition, effects of variations and their expression are considered also in diseases and personalized medicine. The text synthesizes knowledge and insight on individual genetic heterogeneity and organizes and systematizes the central concepts.